22
May
07

SECTS


Once the Quran came to be deemed not self-sufficient and the need was felt to supplement it with hadiths and ijtihads, the rise of numerous sects was inevitable. The four sects prevalent today of the Sunni and Shii sects have had the largest followers among many that have emerged in history.

According to one hadith a man’s calf should be covered, according to another it might be uncovered; according to a commentary of a hadith bleeding would render a man canonically unclean, according to another, touching a woman’s hand would have the same effect. Those who were responsible for corrupting religion by reverting to sources other than the Quran tried to come to a settlement of such issues by having recourse to sects. In this way, the Islam of the Quran was transformed to the Islam of the sectarians. On the other hand, it so happened that the founder of a sect took into his head to enjoin the covering of a man’s body from the waist down to his knees based on a certain hadith, while another denied the authenticity of it. The founder of another sect thinks otherwise and disregards such a prohibition. The fact is that a given hadith was liable to be interpreted differently, but not the Quran since it is the unique source of Islam.

RESEMBLANCE BETWEEN ISLAMIC AND CHRISTIAN SECTS

Sectarian chiefs (imams) reverted to different hadiths from which they tried to derive conclusions and lay down rules in their capacity as lawgivers in subjects left to man’s discretion. The result was the emergence of a new religious composition. In terms of approach, this new structure was no different than Catholicism or Orthodoxy. There have been people who have been of the idea that these sectarian imams had always had the best intentions and there was no end to their sacrifices in the name of religion; consequently, they turned a blind eye to the actual state of affairs and ignored the criticism leveled at them. These sectarian imams who had been given almost absolute authority had been free to issue decrees, laying down or repealing rules at their discretion, and consequently declared an infinite number of things lawful and unlawful, greater in number than what the Quran contained. The names given to the prominent sects were: Hanafi, Shafi, Maliki, Hanbali and Shii.

159 – As for those who divide their religion and break it up into sects, they do not belong with you. He will then inform them of everything they had done.
6 The Cattle, 159

THE SAME PERSON’S DESTINATION IS HEAVEN ACCORDING TO A GIVEN SECT AND HELL ACCORDING TO ANOTHER

For instance, the person who refuses to perform the prayer is flogged according to the Hanafi sect, but is killed according to the Hanbali, Shafi and Maliki sects. The latter three sects commit a heinous crime, the greatest sin according to the Hanafi sect, while cruelty is attributed to the Hanafi sect that flogged but abstained from murdering the culprit according to the other sects. In accordance with the mentality that divides the religion, God will sort out the Muslims depending on their sects and judge the flogging of the Hanafi and approve his act, while He will do the same thing with regard to the murder of the Shafi and mark it with approval. The person refusing to perform the prayer killed by a Hanafi will be sent to hell, but if he is killed by a Shafi, the act will be one deserving the reward in paradise. No matter what the number of followers of such paradoxical religious concepts is, how can one of a sound mind consider them seriously? The approach that preferred to imitate rather than cogitate and declared the Quran incomprehensible by the layman has immersed the public into abysmal ignorance. Can God have revealed the religion and made it exclusive to these sectarians? Yet, He addresses humanity saying ‘O people!’ and makes no reference to the Four Imams.

Despite the verses of the Quran that say there is no compulsion in religion and that contain no provision for those who do not perform the act of worship required of them, why do the imams, at their discretion, pronounce their respective judgments, all of which are admissible, though incompatible?

There are people who claim that differences between the sects are insignificant, that the Hanafi sect suits better the town dweller, while the Shafi sect suits better the villagers! With such inept remarks, they lured people to fancy apish manners. The sects have taken different shapes and moved away from the basic tenets of the Quran and almost become dissimilar creeds. The sectarian imam interprets the hadith he chooses at his discretion, according to his own view of life and supersedes the Quran and the hadiths. Dissent from the true and unique religion of the Quran is only too apparent in their attitude.

105 – Be not like those who are divided amongst themselves and fall into disputations after receiving clear signs.
3 The Family of Imran, 105

SECTUAL DIVISION IS NOT SALVATION BUT DAMNATION

If those seeking salvation in division seriously read the Quran rather than the fabricated hadiths, they will see for themselves that division into factions and the setting up of sects that differ in what is lawful or not is but damnation.

Another fabricated hadith runs as follows: “If one tries to acquire correct and sound views but commits an error, he acquires merit in God’s sight, and if one who tries hard to acquire correct and sound views proves to be right in his judgment his merit in God’s sight is doubled.” This invented hadith enabled one to interpolate into the religion one’s own opinion and gave the impression that someone who strove hard to acquire correct and sound views gained the blessing of God even though he may have erred in his attempt. Based on this claimed hadith, the sectarian imams had been free to interpolate into the religion their own views and ideas under the guise of ray (opinion), kýyas (analogy), jtihad (initiative) or fatwa (legal viewpoint) on legal matters. The words, the great majority of which had been wrongly attributed to the Prophet and to the Prophet’s companions and taken for God’s own word like the Quran and the thousands of additions made by sectarian imams who had deemed themselves authorized to formulate their judgments about the words spoken before them and to impose them as religion, make up the history of present-day Islam. In other words, the Quran + the hadith decided upon at his own discretion by the sectarian imam + the commentaries of the Quran by the sectarian imam + the deductions by the sectarian imams through analogy and ijtihad (initiatives) + the deductions by the sectarian imams according to their evaluation of the companions of the Prophet + the fatwas decreed on events that occurred afterward make up Islam. This was the equation created. The traditionalism, the sectarianism and the religion based on hadiths into which were added the fatwas and ijtihads pronounced by the imams who had succeeded the first imams who embraced their points of view have made up what Islam is conceived to be at present. The controversial points such as whether or not the cologne would cleanse one or not, and if it were sprinkled on one should one renew one’s ablution, or if a cigarette should be declared to be lawful or unlawful formed the basis of later additions, each sect adopting a different viewpoint.

Another alleged hadith was the one that foresaw the division of the Muslim community into seventy-three factions of which only one was to be admitted to paradise, the rest going to hell. The person who had announced this was no other than Muaviya (Darimi, Siyer). This hadith allowed each one of the sects to consider itself the future dwellers of paradise and to condemn the others to eternal punishment in hell. This so-called hadith enabled the Sunnis to condemn the Shiites as reprobates and the future inferno dwellers and the Shiites to convict the Sunnis as reprobates and the future inferno dwellers. Conversely, the imitators of the four principal sects styled as Sunni ended by interpreting and explaining away their mutual accusations in a reconciliatory manner and decided that the followers of the four sects might be eligible for paradise while the Shiites were outcasts. In reality, having judged the Quran not sufficient enough, each party takes its own imam for its guide and follows the imam’s injunctions as if they were the revelations of God.

THE ONLY WAY TO FREE ONESELF FROM THE ASCENDENCY OF SECTS

Yaþar Nuri Öztürk explains in his book, Islam in the Quran, the damages caused by sectarianism: “One of the ways to tell lies in the name of God has been to transform the sects into religions. When each of the sects has become a religion on its own and each of the sectarian imams has turned into a prophet that admits no censure, the establishment of the proportion and divine contribution in the prevalent religion becomes impossible for the masses and a chaos results under the guise of religion. Despite the lapse of hundreds of years in between, nobody dares to bring a change in these tabooed interpretations. This is nothing but cruelty and defamation of God. Because of this cruelty, when the true Islam scholars and honest officials in charge of the religious practice attemptto explain the religion in its true garb, they encounter difficulties and are met by accusations. The remedy to this would be an iconoclastic approach, leaving God the unique authority. This is because pure religion is the exclusivity of God (39 The Throngs, 3). Those who do not feel at home in the face of this exclusivity and dare to share God’s authority are reprobates.”

NAKED WARNING

Yaþar Nuri Öztürk, realizing the obstacle created by the Islam of sects to the Islam professed in the Quran, has described the devastation caused by sects by giving concrete examples in his book, Naked Warning (Çýplak Uyarý), in a chapter entitled Chaos of the Religious Anthology Ascribed to God, said: “The restlessness is due to the mixing of God’s religion with the anthology of religion created by men. God’s religion is the one revealed by God Himself in His book, explicit and detailed and about which there is no doubt. The messenger of the Book is Muhammad. This is the Islam of the Quran. The authors of the anthology of religion are copartners and have created a compilation challenging the uniqueness of the fountainhead of Islam. The books are more than one, the leaders are more than one and the communities are more than one. It is like a corporation. Instead of the unity and harmony existing in religion as such, there exist but chaos and discord in this anthology. All the resulting desultoriness originates from lack of unity and the plurality of its authors. There is an absolute lack of authority in the anthology. ‘According to the opinion of…’ has been the phrase of introduction in many instances. God’s will, having been dodged, the consequence has been but a turmoil in which sects, factions, groups, parties, religious orders, etc. have had their part to play. In these, two persons of the same denomination who act with the same intention are judged differently according to their respective groups, one being condemned, the other declared not guilty of the act they performed.”

THE PLIGHT OF A HANAFI WITH TOOTH DECAY

The masses happen to be the followers of a given sect without being aware of their true aspect and let themselves be instructed what the books on ‘Islamic catechism’ provide them with. For instance, the great majority of Turkish population claims to belong to the Hanafi sect. Yet, as they are ignorant of the fact that the filling or crowning of teeth is prohibited by their sect, they have their teeth filled or crowned. Under the circumstances, their ablution and consequently their prayer becomes null and void according to the viewpoint of their Hanafi sect. Clichés and threats have rendered the sectarianism into some sort of chauvinism and racism. Not to belong to the Sunni sect has been almost equated with heathenism. The same thing holds true as regards the Shiites and Alawis. Their approach to the Sunni is similar. The only alternative that is avoided by the masses who should be enlightened on this issue is the refutation of all the sects and the return to the unique source of Islam: the Quran!

The founders of the sects interpreted the Quran and the hadiths according to their idiosyncrasies, made a selection of the Quranic verses and hadiths transmitted peculiar to their characters, laid down rules under the guise of ra’y (opinion) and ijtihad (initiative) in the domains left to the discretion of the individual, and ended by establishing supremacy over the Quran and the hadiths. The exercise of this power received bitter censure not only from those who deemed the Quran self-sufficient, but also from the hadith imams who came after the sectarian imams we keep on criticizing. One of the major issues they contested was the prevalence of the personal opinions and viewpoints of the sectarian imams. Certain transmitters of the hadiths leveled criticism at the sectarian imams accusing them of inventing hadiths that best suited their own opinions. The criticism of accusing Hanafi, founder of the largest sect, of unreliability by Bukhari, the most renowned among the authors of hadith books, is an example of the depreciation of the sectarians by the authors of hadith books. The consequence has been present-day Islam, which is far from being the Islam of the Quran, not even the Islam based on an infinite number of invented hadiths. The Islam practiced today is the system established by sectarian imams. During the period when they established their sects there was neither a Bukhari nor a Muslim. Nor had the hadiths been sorted out according to the likelihood of their authenticity. In other words, the sects had been formed at a time when there was no trace yet of the Kutub-u Sitte (the six renowned books of hadiths). By this we try to stress the fact that the percentage of the invented hadiths was much higher than a good many hadith books. It is sad to observe that the great majority of people believe their sect to be tantamount to Islam and are unaware of the fact that it is at variance in many respects with the injunctions contained in the Quran. The Quran laid down explicit rules in certain domains leaving others to the discretion of the individual allowing the religion to conform to the time and milieu in question. The sects, on the other hand, believing that there had been gaps left by God in His revelation, ventured to intervene and tried to fill up the so-called gaps, bringing religion to clash with many a situation and even with human conditions.

WOMEN AS SEEN BY THE KHARIDJIS

Idjma (consensus) also is mentioned as one of the sources outside of the Quran. The Sunnis define idjma as the consensus on a given issue reached by all the scholars. Yet, what we are going to observe presently is at odds with the arguments. Although idjma may be adopted as a fact among the Sunnisects, if we take a look at the history of Islam there is hardly any issue outside the purview of the Quran on which consensus has not been reached. For instance on such issues as the prohibition to perform prayer for menstruating women, the fact that the number of prayers should be five in the course of the day, the barring of the way for women to rise to the position of the head of state, the stoning to death of the married committing adultery there is consensus among all the Sunni sects. But this viewpoint belongs to the Sunnis exclusively; for, according to the Kharidjis a menstruating woman may perform her prayers, a woman may rise to the position of the head of state, the number of prayers may be less than five, the adultress shall not be stoned to death.,These views had already been expressed from the very start of the foundation of the sect. This illustrates once again that the Quran, which does not contain prescriptions on such issues, should be adopted as the only reliable source. So long as one was not satisfied with what the Quran lays down explicitly, the rise of a plurality of sects was inevitable. Although under the heading of Sunna they try to show the unity of sects, the readers will presently see for themselves that the situation is not as it is alleged and that the lawful and the unlawful differ according to most of them.

SECTARIAN IMAM WHO SAW GOD IN HIS DREAM!

Those whose intentions have been to deceive people have invented hadiths that praised their sectarian imams while depreciating their opponents, the imams of other sects. To consolidate the link of the followers to the sectarian imams, stories are told about the scholarship and devotion of the founders of the sects. The most incredible cock-and-bull story we have heard has been Abu Hanifa’s vision of God in his dreams more than one hundred times. In order to attach people to their own creeds they had recourse to such hyperboles. It is difficult however to tell if the author of such invented stories had been the founders themselves or their students or followers.

We are of the opinion that those who at present style themselves Hanafis are far from being linked to Abu Hanifa. Abu Hanifa was nicknamed Ahl-i Ray (authorized to pronounce legal opinions). This was a consequence of his laying down rules that the Quran did not contain. All the hadith scholars, especially Shafi, and later, Bukhari took exception to this attitude that disregarded the hadiths. Yet, the Hanafi sect today is entirely based on hadiths. They try to base every viewpoint of the Hanafi sect on a hadith. Nevertheless, according to historical records the reason for the murder of Abu Hanifa was his qualification as “lawgiver.” The Hanafi sect has been transmitted to us under the sovereignty of the powers that be who had assassinated Abu Hanifa. As a matter of fact, Abu Yusuf, acknowledged as the number 2 figure to succeed Abu Hanifa (the person who had ventured to kill somebody who disliked squash, as this was against the Sunna) became the authority that issued fatwas attached to the group that had killed Abu Hanifa. The preaching of his master’s views under the rule of the powers that be – murderers of the master – that had raised him to his actual office was certainly tainted with ideological prejudices and sectarianism. One of the reasons is the concoction of hadiths by sectarians with a view to justifying their own viewpoints. Most of the hadith books were written after the establishment of sects. Whatever Abu Hanifa’s views may have been, the sect called Hanafi we have been commenting on is the one that is being applied at present.

SHAFI LAID DOWN THE FOUNDATIONS OF A PSEUDO-RELIGION

A careful survey would show that the foundations of the Sunni ideas and the religion based on hadiths had been laid by Imam Shafi, founder of the Shafi sect. After Shafi, except for certain cases about which there is explicit injunction in the Quran, a provision of the canonical law had to be based on one or more hadiths (Montgomery Watt, What is Islam?). The same opinion is expressed by Ýlhami Güler in the following way: “One must not forget that the core of the history of Islamic thought expressed in the Kutub-i Sitte and especially in Bukhari’s work to which has been attributed an epistemological worth almost equal to the Quran, largely consists in Shafi’s reducing the Sunna to ‘gayrý metluv vahiy’. The hadith culture, which up until Shafi, had been differently interpreted and depended on, verbal intellect had come to be expressed in written form after Shafi and assumed a dogmatic quality and an importance almost equal to the Quran (First Quran Symposium, Arkun Tarihiyyatu’l-Fikril’l-Arabi). Osman Taþtan described the manner by which the foundations of the Sunna conception of today had been laid down by Imam Shafi: “Shafi’s emergence changed the situation. Shafi, separated the Prophet’s Sunna from the community’s Sunna and raised the latter in legal terms to a level equal to the Quran. The idea was to show the highest respect to the prophethood of Muhammad and contribute to it. Actually, this put an unbridgeable gap between the Prophet and the community. In this way the Sunna had been mixed with the revelation in a melting pot. The last thing to do would be to merge the sayings of the Prophet’s companions with them. These theoretical approaches had widened the scope of the revelation that came to be extended to cover first the Sunna and then the sayings of the companions. This meant extending the divine revelation to cover human words (First Quran Symposium).” We did not want to reserve a wide space for the history of sects in the present book. Anybody who examines the history of sects may see for himself the attacks on the Hanafi sect by Shafi and the fact that the sects Maliki, Hanbali and Shafi are not branches of one single sect called Sunni, but are sects on their own. The table we shall be giving presently will make clear the wide differences between them. These sects, which originally were separate from each other, had come to be gathered under one heading by the contribution of Imam Ghazzali, rector of the Nýzamýya Madrasa under the influence of political authority. The revelation was one contained in the Quran before it was divided into conflicting sects. The objective was to acquire extraneous sources and try to challenge the divine authority.

103 – Hold on firmly together to the rope of God, and be not divided among yourselves.
3 Family of Imran, 103

ARE YOU STILL FOLLOWING IN THE FOOTSTEPS OF YOUR ANCESTORS?

We shall observe in the table below the conflicts between the sects and the way God’s Islam came to be differently conceived. We have spared here the intrinsic differences between the sects themselves. Just to give you an instance, it is acknowledged that there was wide divergence between Abu Hanifa’s opinions and the ideas of his followers; Abu Yusuf, Muhammad…. In our table we limit ourselves to the variations between various sects. Those who believe in what has been transmitted by their ancestors but willing to know the core of their creed should, after examining the tables given below, come to a decision before getting rid of all of them and return to the only revelation contained in the Quran.

100 Examples illustrating the differences between sects

Items
Hanafi Maliki Shafi Hanbali

1. Skin of a dead animal
unlawful lawful unlawful lawful

2. Flesh of beasts fed on dirt
– lawful – unlawful

3. Eel
lawful – – unlawful

4. Man’s wearing red
abominable lawful unlawful abominable

5. Man’s wearing yellow
unlawful lawful unlawful unlawful

6. Playing ud, recorder, drum, etc. abominable lawful lawful unlawful

7. Crow flesh unlawful lawful unlawful unlawful

8. Horse flesh unlawful lawful – –

9. Mussels
unlawful lawful – –

10. Oysters
unlawful lawful – –

11. Lobsters
unlawful lawful – –

12. Swallows lawful lawful unlawful unlawful

13. Eagles
unlawful lawful unlawful unlawful

14. Bats unlawful abominable unlawful unlawful

15. Ablution before circumambulation in pilgrimage
duty (wacip) binding duty binding duty binding duty

16. Rehearsing of Fatiha in the first two rekats during prayer.
duty binding duty binding duty binding duty

17. Tasbih in kneeling and prostrating
sunna – sunna duty

18. Rehearsing suras after the fatiha during the first two rekats
duty permissible sunna sunna

19.Rehearsing basmala before the fatiha
sunna abominable binding duty duty

20. Interval between feet during prayer in the standing position
3 inches 16 inches 8 inches 16 inches

21. Vitr prayer
duty sunna sunna sunna

22. Man who touches a boy becomes canonically unclean
no yes no no

23. Does greeting during prayer make one canonically unclean?
yes no – –

24. Interval allowed from the person during prayer.
40 fathoms 1 fathom 3 fathoms 3 fathoms

25. To utter words other than the prayer during prayer annuls it
yes no no no

26. Using a wrong word during the prayer annuls it
yes no no no

27. Sighing during the prayer annuls it
yes no yes yes

28. Is the urine of beasts whose flesh is edible clean? yes no yes no

29. Is the sperm of edible beasts clean?
yes yes no no

30. Number of binding duties in ablution
4 7 6 7

31. Is there an obligatory order of acts during ablution?
no no yes yes

32. Must acts performed during ablution follow an unbroken succession?
no yes no yes

33. Number of sunnas of ablution
17 8 30 20

34. Is the use of miswak sunna?
yes no yes yes

35. Washing hands, face and arms three times sunna?
yes no yes yes

36. Is the three times anointing the head during ablution a sunna?
no no yes yes

37. Is the rubbing of ears inside & outside a sunna?
yes yes yes no

38. How many times must the ears be rubbed during ablution?
once once three times once

39. The number of acts that annul one’s ablution
12 3 5 8

40. Does touching one’s sexual organ annul the ablution?
no yes yes yes

41. Does laughter during pray (salat) annul the ablution
yes no no no

42. Do eating camel flesh and washing the body of the dead annul the ablution?
no no no yes

43. Does uncertainty annul the ablution?
no no no yes

44. Does bleeding annuls the ablution?
yes no no yes

45. Is expression of intention necessary before ablution?
yes no no no

46. Number of reasons for total ablution (gasala)
7 4 5 6

47. Number of binding duties related to total ablution
11 5 3 –

48. Person not performing the pray because of neglect or idleness
is jailed& killed if killed if killed if
beaten& he doesn’t he doesn’t he doesn’t
killed repent repent in repent in 3 days 3 days

49. If the words are not rehearsed successively will call for prayer (ezan) be valid
yes yes no no

50. Can a person who doesn’t speak Arabic rehearse the words of ezan in his tongue?
no yes no yes

51..Must formal resolve be expressed in ezan?
no yes no yes

52. Is greeting permissible during the ezan?
no no no yes

53. Must one rehearse the Fatiha at every prayer? Is it a binding duty?
yes no no no

54.Is salam a binding duty at the end of every prayer?
no to one to one to both
direction only direction only directions

55. Parts of a man that should be covered?
From navel privy parts & from navel from navel
to the knee buttocks to the knee to the knee

56. Portion of a corpse for ritual cleaning before burial
2/3 ½ a portion a portion

57. Must water enter the mouth and nostrils during ritual washing of the corpse
no yes yes no

58. Should person who died during hajj (pilgrimage) be incensed
with perfume and face covered?
yes yes no no

59. Who will conduct the salat performed in honor of the dead?
sultan- person next of person
head of state that the dead kin that the dead
had indicated had indicated

60. Special proscription for the time of performance of salat in honor of the dead?
5 3 every time 3

61 Can body be buried at a location other than the one where death occurred?
yes yes no no

62. Should intention to fast be expressed by word of mouth
yes yes no yes

63. Should a person renew his intention to fast every day in Ramadan?
yes no yes yes

64. Does bleeding annul fasting?
no no no yes

65. Chattel a person owes that bars zakat giving?
all assets gold&silver no all assets
except for grains prescription

66. Should a man or woman give zakat on their jewelry?
yes no no no

67. Should zakat be given on cash?
yes yes yes no

68. Rate of zakat on metals?
1/5 1/5 1/40 1/40

69. No. of conditions related to zakat to be given on traded assets
4 5 6 2

70. Should zakat be given on any valuable thing unearthed?
yes no no yes

71. Should zakat be given on honey produced?
yes no no yes

72.Should zakat be given on land devoted to pious foundations?
yes yes no no

73.Should zakat be given on land rented or held in tenure to be cultivated ?
no yes yes yes

74. Should zakat be given on olives?
yes yes no yes

75.Should zakat be given on cattle fed on foddle or worked in the field?
no yes no no

76. Age of sheep and goat at which they are liable for zekat?
For sheep 1 For sheep 1 For sheep 1 For sheep 1/2
For goat 1 For goat 1 For goat 2 For goat 2

77. Can a woman go to hajj unaccompanied by her husband?
no yes yes no

78. Can a person unable to go on hajj appoint a proxy?
yes no yes yes

79. Number of requirements for hajj?
2 4 5 4

80. Is it permissible that the stone hurled at Satan does not fall on the jamra during pilgrimage?
yes no no no

81. Is it permissible to give food to a poor who is not a Muslim?
yes no no no

82. Is it unlawful to sit on silk, to lean against it or to use it as tapestry?
no yes yes yes

83. Is it permissible for a boy to wear silk?
no no yes yes

84. Is it permissible to use a cup ornamented with silver while taking
ablution or drink from?
yes no no no

85. Is trimming the beard unlawful?
yes yes no yes

86. Is backgammon unlawful?
no yes yes yes

87. Is chess unlawful?
yes yes no yes

88. Should the debts of a dead be paid?
no yes yes no

89. What portion of things unearthed in one’s own land are due to the state?
1/5 0 0 0

90. Is the usurper cultivator of land the owner of the produce he obtains?
yes yes yes no

91. Time within which a contract can be modified or terminated?
3 days according 3 days according to
to the need contract

92. Beast sexually assaulted
killed not killed not killed should be
flesh nor flesh edible flesh edible killed
edible

93. Number of times the cudgel shall be applied to inflict punishment to a drinker of wine or other inebriating substance?
80 80 40 80

94.Will a person stinking or vomiting wine be punished with a cudgel?
no yes no no

95. Can the estate of a religious apostate killed be given to his inheritor?
yes no no no

96. Should a woman renegade be killed?
no yes yes yes

97. Should letting some die by abandoning, imprisoning and leaving him to starve be considered as premeditated murder?
no yes yes yes

98. Can a woman act as a judge?
yes no no no

99. Is a dog a clean animal?
no no yes yes

100. Should a muezzin be paid for his act?
no yes yes no

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