11
May
07

The Trust

Ayman (e-mail: drayman@fast-email.com)

Introduction

In the previous study“FREE CHOICE”, a basic and straightforward logical analysis was conducted on the Quranic verses relating to The GOD’s will. Various logical propositions and their present and past tense occurrences were examined. The conclusion derived from the analysis is that we each have the freedom to choose the path to take but have no control over what outcome this path will lead to.

When scientists study the universe, the more they understand of it, the more questions arise. I found the same to be true for the Quran. I will try here to answer some of the questions that arose out of the previous study, namely:

– Is freedom of choice unique to humans?

– What is the trust mentioned in 33:72?

– What is the forbidden tree?

As always, only The GOD knows the absolute true answer to those questions as well as all other questions. We will remember the 100% true interpretation only on judgment day (see 7:53). Thus, I am simply hoping that The GOD guides me to get closer to the straight path.

Is Freedom of Choice Unique to Humans?

After developing a clearer understanding of human freedom of choice from the Quran, this is one of the first questions that came to my mind: “is this freedom of choice unique to humans?” What can we understand from the Quran in that regards?

Verses such as 2:34 indicate that angels have freedom of choice. In this case, to prostrate or not to prostrate:

And when We said to the angels: “Prostrate to Adam.” So they prostrated except Iblis, he refused and became arrogant, and he was from the rejecters. [2:34]

The jinn also have freedom of choice as indicated by verse 72:11:

“And that we from us (the jinn) are the correct/righteous, and from us are other/lesser than that, we were on fragmented ways.” [72:11]

So the jinn too can choose their way, either the correct/righteous way or the wrong way. In fact, perhaps everything in the skies and the earth has freedom of choice as implied by the following verse:

We displayed/presented the trust on the skies/space and the earth, and the mountains, so they refused that they bear it, and they were cautious/afraid from it, and the human bore it, that he truly was unjust/oppressive, ignorant [33:72]

It seems that everything in the skies and the earth, including mountains, could have chosen to accept or refuse the “trust” so they already had freedom of choice.

What is the Trust? (Part 1)

Some people have speculated that the trust (“Amana”) mentioned in verse 33:72 is free will. As we saw earlier, humans have freedom to choose which path to take, but it seems that other creatures, including the humans, had freedom of choice from before the “trust” was presented. So clearly this cannot be the “trust” that the humans accepted. So let’s clear our minds from any preconceived ideas about what the trust is and listen to what is said in the Quran.

We displayed/presented the trust on the skies/space and the earth, and the mountains, so they refused that they bear it, and they were cautious/afraid from it, and the human bore it, that he truly was unjust/oppressive, ignorant [33:72]

This verse raises an interesting issue and resolving it could give us an important first clue about the trust. How can the skies/space, the earth, and even the mountains have freedom of choice to refuse or accept the trust? It seems that what we normally perceive as a lifeless thing, such as the mountains, has a “hidden” side that we are unaware of. The hidden side of those creatures had access to information that made them cautious/afraid from accepting the trust.

Another clue is that trust (“amana”) is closely related to a concept called “a’hd” or covenant/contract. This is clear from verses such as 23:8 and 70:32.

And those whom to their trusts and their covenant they are protecting/observing [23:8]

I believe that a covenant is the contract/promise that results, for example, from accepting a trust. What is the covenant that the descendants of Adam have with The GOD? The answer is clearly given in the following verses:

Did I not make a covenant to you, Adam’s descendants, that you do not serve the devil, he truly is for you a clear/evident enemy, and that you serve Me, that is a straight path? [36:60-61]

The contract/covenant that we committed to when we accepted the trust is to not serve the devil and serve The GOD alone. But when did we make this covenant and why do we, in this life, not remember that we committed to this beforehand? Perhaps, we too have a “hidden” side that we are unaware of, just like we are unaware of the mountains’ hidden side.

Another concept that “a’hd” and thus “amana” are closely related to is “mythaq” or pledge. For example, see 2:27, 13:20, and 13:25:

Those who fulfill/complete the covenant to The GOD, and do not break/undo the pledge/binding. [13:20]

While the “a’hd” or covenant applies to all people, the “mythaq” or pledge seems to be a subset that applies to certain people. Also, while we may not remember the covenant, we certainly know about the pledge since we implicitly gave it in this life. For example, here is the “mythaq” of people who are given the book:

And as The GOD took/received the pledge (“mythaq”) of those who were given The Book, to clarify/show/explain it to the people, and do not hide/conceal it, so they discarded/rejected it behind their backs and bought/exchanged with it a small price, so how bad is what they buy/exchange? [3:187]

Once the Quran was given to a certain group, they too became “those who were given the book” and by accepting the Quran, they accepted the pledge in verse 3:187. In order not to break this pledge, they should try to clarify/show/explain it to the people (such as what I am trying to do right now). Did the people who were given the Quran fulfill their pledge? Or did many of them practically discarded the book of The GOD and exchanged it for something less worthy such as the book of Bukhari? If so, then the majority is breaching the pledge (“mythaq”), thereby breaking the covenant (“a’hd”) and violating the trust (“amana”). Indeed, what bad exchange!

Another question that arises out of 33:72 and 36:60-61 is that the covenant resulting from the trust, “not serving an enemy and serving The GOD”, sounds straightforward and logical, so why did everybody refuse to bear the trust except the human? Does the fact that we are now unaware of the “hidden” side of things, including our own hidden side, have something to do with it? Was this constraint part of the trust? It seems that the trust is not merely a privilege but may have significant constraints associated with it.

The story of Adam can help shed some light on this because Adam too made a covenant with The GOD and he too forgot about it:

And We had entrusted/made a covenant to Adam from before so he forgot, and We did not find decisiveness/determination in him. [20:115]

The story of Adam is recited in several places in the Quran such as: 2:30-39, 7:10-25, 15:26-40, 17:61-65, 18:50, 20:115-124, and 38:69-85. The following is the story as told in Chapter 20:

And as We said to the angels: “Prostrate to Adam.” So they prostrated except Iblis refused/hated. [20:116]

So We said: “Adam, that is an enemy for you and your spouse, so let him not bring you both out from the Paradise, so you will be miserable/unhappy.” [20:117]

“In it for you, that you do not be hungry, nor exposed” [20:118]

“And that you do not be thirsty in it, nor heat stricken ” [20:119]

So the devil inspired and talked to him, he said: “O Adam, do I guide you to the immortality’s/eternity’s tree, and possession/kingdom that does not wear out?” [20:120]

Perhaps another clue about the trust can be found in the forbidden tree that Iblis fabricated a nice sounding lie about to lure them into eating from.

What is the Forbidden Tree?

A better understanding of the effect of the tree would help in understanding its meaning.

Traditionally, it is thought that Adam and spouse became naked or their private parts showed when they ate from the tree and that is why they expressed shame. This interpretation doesn’t make logical sense because The Creator knows “the creation”. In other words, The GOD created them and their private parts and knows what they look like naked. Let us continue with the subsequent verse in Chapter 20:

So they ate from it, so their physical bodies (“saw’a-tahoma”) appeared to them, and they started to stick on them from the Paradise’s leaves, and Adam disobeyed his Lord, so he was misguided/failed. [20:121]

Some people have interpreted (“saw’a-tahoma”) as “evil intentions”. Obviously, it doesn’t make sense that they would try to cover their “evil intentions” with the paradise’s leaves. This is again confirmed in Chapter 7:

“And you Adam, reside you and your mate/spouse the Paradise, so you eat from it where/when you willed, and do not approach/near this tree, so you will become from the unjust/oppressive.” [7:19]

So the devil suggested to them to show to them what was hidden/concealed from them of their physical body (“saw’a-tahoma”), and he said: “Your Lord did not prevent you from this tree except that you become two angels or you become from the eternals” [7:20]

And he made oath to them: “I am to you from the advisors/counselors.” [7:21]

So he lured/attracted and lowered them, with deceit/temptation/arrogance so when they tasted/experienced the tree, their physical body (“saw’a-tahoma”) appeared to them, and they started to stick on them from the Paradise’s leaves, and their Lord called them: “Did I not forbid/prevent you from that tree, and I said to you that the devil is for you an evident enemy?” [7:22]

The Sunni clergy were and continue to be heavily influenced by Paulian (the rogue Nazarene sect that hijacked the name of Christ) and Talmudic traditions and thus they interpreted the Arabic word (“saw’a”) as “private parts”. However, that interpretation is not consistent with the following verse:

So The GOD sent a crow digging in the earth, to show him how to cover his brother’s physical body (“saw’a”), he said: “Oh my calamity, have I been unable to be like that crow, so I cover/bury my brother’s physical body (“saw’a”)?” So he became from the remorseful. [5:31]

Clearly the crow showed the son of Adam how to cover/bury his murdered brother’s physical body, not how to cover/bury his private parts or his evil intentions. Therefore, I believe that it is not shame of nakedness but the surprise of seeing their “physical” selves that prompted them to try to cover themselves.

This may confirm that we have a dual nature, “sensed/physical” and “hidden”. In this world, the “physical” side is apparent while the other side is hidden from us. Perhaps in heaven, it was the other way around, until eating from the tree made the “physical” side apparent to Adam and spouse.

In the same way that when Iblis disobeyed the Lord’s command he became a jinn and lost touch with the “angel” side, when Adam and spouse ate from the tree they lost touch with the “hidden” side.

Also, according to verses such as 69:17 and 89:22, the angels will come with our Lord on judgment day. Perhaps that is why the devil tempted Adam and mate using the lie of the tree having the power to turn them into two angels. Maybe Adam and spouse thought that this way they would escape being judged on judgment day.

Why Don’t We Remember Accepting the Trust?

There are many verses in the Quran indicating that there is a hidden side to the universe that we are part of (see 32:17, 7:27, 69:38-39, 50:22, 21:97, 30:7).

They know (what is) apparent/visible from the low life, and they, about the ending, are unaware/oblivious [30:7]

In fact, the “hidden” side of the universe provides access to information that may enable other creatures to make choices that are in line with The GOD’s natural system. It seems from verse 8:48 that even the devil, who unlike us, has access to this hidden side doesn’t dare to do actions that violate The GOD’s natural system, he merely suggests/tells others to do so.

And when the devil decorated/beautified for them their works/deeds, and he said: “No defeater/conqueror from the people for you today and that I am a savior/rescuer for you.” So when the two groups saw each other, he returned/withdrew on his two heels, and he said: “That I am innocent/renouncing/separating from you, I see/understand what you do not see/understand, I fear The GOD, and The GOD (is) strong (severe) in the punishment.” [8:48]

As we saw earlier, the fact that we can’t detect or see the hidden side of the universe may explain why we don’t remember accepting the trust. Could this be why we are constantly asked to remember in the Quran and the Quran itself is described as a reminder?

It seems that the people who will go to heaven will remember that the provisions provided for them were also provided in their previous existence as indicated in 2:25:

And announce good news to those who have faith and did/made the correct/righteous deeds, that to them are treed gardens the rivers flow from beneath it. Whenever they were provided from it a fruit of provision, they said: “This is what we were provided from before.” And they were given with it similar, and for them in it are purified mates/pairs and they are in it immortally/eternally. [2:25]

Also it seems that on the day where people see the greatest disaster they will remember, as indicated by verses such as 7:53, 79:34-35, and 89:23.

So if/when the greatest/biggest calamity/disaster came. That day/time the human/mankind remembers what he strived/endeavored. [79:34-35]

And on that day hell was brought. On that day the human/mankind remembers, and from where is for him the remembrance/reminder? [89:23]

Why would the bringing of hell remind people? Have we all seen hell before? If so, since hell is not here yet, how could we have seen a future outcome? The following verse may provide an indication:

And when your Lord said to the angels: “That I am making/creating/putting in the earth a successor/appointee/leader/replacement (“khalifa”).” They said: “Do you make/put in it, who corrupts in it and sheds the bloods, and/(while) we praise/glorify with Your praise and we (continue to admit Your) holiness/sanctity to You.” He said: “I know what you do not know.” [2:30]

It seems from the Quran that perhaps some creatures such as the angels are able to see some of the future outcomes. Verses such as 37:8 confirm that those in the highest group/elite (“al-mala’a al-a’ala”) may have at least some ability to see future outcomes. In verse 2:30, they were able to see that a successor/appointee in the earth would corrupt in it and kill senselessly. In fact, the angels seem to be so confident about the future outcomes of that action that they question The GOD’s decision.

Who is the Khalifa?

The word “khalifa” comes from the root “KhaLaF”, which has some of the following connotations that are relevant to verse 2:30:

Successor (7:169, 19:59, …)

Appointee/leader (43:60, 24:55, …)

Different (30:22, 16:13, …)

Replacement (7:150, 6:133, 11:57, …)

The clear answer to who the “khalifa” really is can be found in verses such as 6:165 and 35:39:

And He is who made you the earth’s successors/appointees/leaders/replacement (“khalaif”), and He raised some of you above some by degrees, to test you in what He gave you, indeed your Lord is quick in the punishment and He is forgiving, merciful. [6:165]

Also verse 7:10, which like 2:30 also comes right before the story of Adam confirms that humankind is the empowered successor/appointee/leader/replacement in the earth:

And We had empowered you in the earth, and We made for you in it livelihood/sustenance, little (is) what you thank/be grateful. [7:10]

Thus it is humankind (us) who is the earth’s “khalifa”. This is a unique feature of humankind that makes us different and may help us in getting closer to what the trust is.

What is the Trust? (Part 2)

Before we continue, it is worth noting that the angels are not part of the skies and the earth as indicated by 16:49:

And to The GOD prostrates what is in the skies/space and what is in the earth from a walker/creeper/crawler, and the angels, and they are not being arrogant. [16:49]

Consequently, we can deduce that the angels were not among the creatures that were offered the trust in 33:72. On the other hand, The GOD told the angels alone about putting a successor/appointee/leader/replacement (“khalifa”) on earth. So, was being a test for the angels part of the trust? As we saw, one of the connotations of “khalifa” is “replacement”, so perhaps humankind was to replace the angels as leaders of the earth. This may explain the following reaction from the angels:

…They said: “Do you make/put in it, who corrupts in it and sheds the bloods, and/(while) we praise/glorify with Your praise and we (continue to admit Your) holiness/sanctity to You.”… [2:30]

So now, back to our original question. Perhaps one of the ways to approach the ‘trust’ is to think about what makes us different from other creatures since we are the only ones who accepted the trust. From the Quran, we can find several features that are unique to humankind:

As we saw above, humankind is the earth’s successor/appointee/leader/replacement (“khalifa”).

Our Lord taught Adam all the names (see 2:31).

As we saw earlier, we are currently unaware/ignorant of the “hidden” side of the universe.

Also, humankind may be part of a test for the angels.

Also another feature that maybe unique to the human is that The GOD’s spirit was blown into the human (see 32:9, 15:29, 38:72). However, so far I couldn’t find more evidence to confirm whether this is a unique feature of humankind or not.

Hence the trust may entail all of those features that are unique to humankind. Another important clue about the trust can be found at the end of 33:72:

We displayed/presented the trust on the skies/space and the earth, and the mountains, so they refused that they bear it, and they were cautious/afraid from it, and the human bore it, that he truly was unjust/oppressive, ignorant [33:72]

Why is the human called unjust/oppressive and ignorant for accepting the trust? Accepting the first two privileges (the “khalifa” and “knowledge of all the names”) does not seem like a bad decision. However, accepting those privileges along with the constraint of not having access to the “hidden” side that as we saw earlier provides crucial information helping other creatures make choices that are in line with The GOD’s natural system does seem risky. This is especially an unjust/oppressive and ignorant decision, given that it was known in advance that any “khalifa” would corrupt in the earth. Also, it is a known fact that The GOD’s punishment is severe (see verses such as 8:48) and that The GOD will punish the hypocrites and takers of partners as indicated in 33:73 immediately following the verse about the trust.

I believe that this is maybe why everybody in the skies and the earth did not want to bear the trust and why the human is called unjust/oppressive and ignorant for accepting it.

Now add an angel who became a vengeful jinn that is bent on diverting us from the only path that leads to heaven among a very large number of paths that all lead to hell and the outlook for humankind does seem gloomy indeed. Also, while still in the highest group/elite and perhaps was able to see some future outcomes, this vengeful jinn confidently said that the majority of the humans will follow him (see 7:17).

In summary, the trust entails being a successor/appointee/leader/replacement in the earth while knowing the names but being unaware of the “hidden” side of the universe.

How Can We Fulfill the Trust?

Verses 2:27 and 13:25 talk about the people who break the covenant and thereby corrupt in the earth as the angels in verse 2:30 knew the “khalifa” would:

Those who break The GOD’s covenant (“a’hd”) from after its binding/pledging, and they cut/sever what The GOD ordered connected, and they corrupt in the earth, those are the losers. [2:27]

Since we now know that being a “khalifa” maybe the major component of the trust, it seems that to fulfill the Trust, we must not corrupt in the earth. In turn, in order not to corrupt in the earth, we must fulfill The GOD’s covenant and not cut what The GOD ordered connected as indicated by 2:27.

As we saw earlier, this is The GOD’s covenant that we must not break:

Did I not entrust/make a covenant (“a’hd”) to you, Adam’s descendants, that you do not serve the devil, he truly is for you a clear/evident enemy, and that you serve Me, that is a straight path? [36:60-61]

Our purpose in life is to fulfill this covenant with The GOD:

And I did not create the Jinns and the humankind except to serve Me. [51:56]

To fulfill the covenant and thus accomplish our purpose in life to serve The GOD alone, everything we do in life should be for The GOD (see 6:162-163):

Say: “That my “Salat” and my methods, and my life, and my death, (is) to the Lord of the universes. No partner to Him, and with that I was ordered/commanded, and I am first (of) the Muslims.” [6:162-163]

See also 20:14:

“I am The GOD; there is no other god but Me. So you shall serve Me, and establish the “Salat” for My Remembrance.” [20:14]

So it seems that “Salat” is closely related to fulfilling our covenant and our purpose in life. So the next question is how does Salat relate to our covenant?

How Do Salat and Zakat Relate to Our Covenant?

Verses 9:1-13 confirm that both “Salat and Zakat” concepts are related to the “covenant” concept. Those who broke their covenant with the faithful are to bring forth Salat and Zakat to be forgiven. Verses 9:11 and 9:12 indicate two opposite paths (courses of action) that the people who fought to kill the faithful after making a covenant with them can take:

Path 1:

“If they repent, and they uphold the “Salat”, and they bring forth the “Zakat”, then they are your brothers in the system, and We explain the revelations for a people who know. ” [9:11]

Path 2:

“And if they break their oaths after their covenant, and they distort your system, then you may kill the chiefs of rejection. Their oaths are nothing to them, perhaps they will cease.” [9:12]

Thus, the opposite of “breaking their oaths after their covenant, and distorting your system” is “upholding the Salat, and bringing forth the Zakat”. This means that “Salat” is equivalent to “committing to their oaths and covenant” and “Zakat” is equivalent to “purifying the system from their deliberate distortions”.

In our case, here are our covenant and pledge with The GOD, which as we saw earlier are connected:

Did I not entrust/make a covenant (“a’hd”) to you, Adam’s descendants, that you do not serve the devil, he truly is for you a clear/evident enemy, and that you serve Me, that is a straight path? [36:60-61]

And as The GOD took/received the pledge (“mythaq”) of those who were given The Book, to clarify/show/explain it to the people, and do not hide/conceal it, so they discarded/rejected it behind their backs and bought/exchanged with it a small price, so how bad is what they buy/exchange? [3:187]

From other verses in the Quran, we can see that Salat’s purpose is:

Remembering The GOD (20:14) by remembering His favor and the pledge (“mythaq”) that we made with Him (5:7) and “hearing and obeying” Him (i.e. prostration/”sujood”).

Fulfilling our pledge by reciting the book (29:45, 17:78) and explaining it (3:187), including explaining its application to our system of laws and community.

Verses 4:101-103 describe the shortening of Salat in case of fear by performing only process number 1 above and ending the Salat with the “sujood”.

Now it is clear that Salat helps us in serving The GOD by connecting our covenant and pledge with their actual fulfillment in our system while Zakat helps us in not serving the devil by purifying our system from his distortions.

The “Salat” puts those who have faith in contrast to the rejecters. The rejecters betray/break their covenant, cut what The GOD ordered connected (see 2:27, 13:25), and disconnect their words from their deeds (see 26:226-227). On the other hand, those who have faith connect their covenant and pledge (words) with the fulfillment of their covenant and pledge (deeds) by upholding the Allegiance/Connection Assembly = “Salat” (see 13:19-22).

Purifying our system from the devil’s distortions (“Zakat”) is done by convincing people to reject the devil’s lies as clear from Chapter 80:

How do you know? He may “yazaka”. [80:3]

Thus, everyone who wants to give Purification (“Zakat”) is required to make an effort to purify others by exposing the devil’s lies, such as the Hadiths, that distort our system.

Those who if We empowered them in the earth they upheld the Allegiance/Connection Assembly (“Salat”) and brought purification (“Zakat”) and they ordered/commanded with the kindness, and they forbade disguised-obscenity, and to The GOD (are) the matters’ end (results). [22:41]

Conclusion And Directions For Future Research

That it truly is an honorable messenger’s utterance [69:40]

That it truly is an honorable messenger’s utterance [81:19]

And We had connected for them the utterance, perhaps they remember [28:51]

Interestingly, we are finding that the concepts we covered so far from the Quran such as Free Choice, Trust, Covenant, Pledge, Forbidden Tree, Khalifa, Salat, Zakat, our purpose in life, and serving The GOD are all interconnected as was indicated in 28:51.

Here is the verse immediately following verse 33:72 that talks about the trust:

For The GOD to punish the (male and female) hypocrites, and the (male and female) sharers/takers of partners (with The GOD), and for The GOD to forgive the (male and female) who have faith, and The GOD was forgiving, merciful. [33:73]

Remember the test that we are going through in this low life:

Did the people assume/suppose that they be left to say “we had faith” and they are not being tested? And We had tested those who were before them, so The GOD will know those who were truthful, and He will know the liars/deniers/falsifiers. [29:2-3]

And The GOD will know those who have faith, and He will know the hypocrites. [29:11]

Perhaps the test of this low life is an assessment of whether we will betray or observe the trust. Also, continue to read the story of Adam in chapter 20:

Then His Lord chose/purified him, so He forgave him, and guided. [20:122]

He said: “You descend/drop from it all together, some of you to some an enemy, so when guidance from Me comes to you, so who followed My guidance, so he does not become misguided nor become miserable/unhappy. [20:123]

“And who objected/turned away from My remembrance/reminder, so then for him is a narrow/tight/weak life/livelihood, and We gather him on the Resurrection Day blind/confused” [20:124]

What is that “guidance” 20:123 that we are to follow?

“This is the book, no doubt, in it guidance for the prudent/forethoughtful.” [2:2]

The Quran helps us with the our purpose in life by, for example, talking about the outcomes that we are going to face in the afterlife and providing knowledge that help us connect all the information we have together to determine our purpose in life. It is simply a reminder to help us choose the right path that will lead to a desirable outcome in the afterlife and warn us about the other paths and the miserable outcome that they will certainly lead to.

As I mentioned in the introduction, when scientists study the universe, the more they understand of it, the more questions arise and I found the same to be true for the Quran. One word that was repeated many times in this article is “why”. Children have this natural instinct to keep asking “why”. Unfortunately, many education systems, especially in Sunni and Shia nations, have been an agent for suppressing this inquisitive nature so that by the time the child grows into an adult, they are a tamed blind follower. A more natural education system that attempts to harness this inquisitive nature to promote the revival of scientific discovery and civilization is desperately needed. Meanwhile, please coach your children to continue to ask “why”.

Remember our purpose in life:

And I did not create the Jinns and the humankind except to serve Me. [51:56]

Also,

And had your Lord willed He would have made the people one nation, and they still/continue differing/disagreeing. [11:118]

Except who your Lord had mercy upon and for that He created them, and your Lord’s word/expression (is) completed: “I will fill Hell from the Jinns and the people all together.” [11:119]

By putting 51:56 and 11:118-119 together, we can see that despite all people differences/disagreements, what unites those who our Lord has mercy on is the serving of The GOD alone. So even though we may occasionally disagree on some Quranic interpretations, what is really important is that we agree to serve The GOD alone and not the devil and his lies.

Many new questions arose while writing this article, for example:

Now that we understand from the Quran that the universe has a sensed/physical side and a “hidden” side, what more can we find out about that “hidden” side from the Quran?

How do our findings relate to new scientific theories that try to explain the universe such as string theory, m-theory, and f-theory? All those theories suggest that there are indeed “hidden” dimensions in the universe.

Also, what else can we find out about the straight path?

Did I not entrust/make a covenant to you, Adam’s descendants, that you do not serve the devil, he truly is for you a clear/evident enemy, and that you serve Me, that is a straight path? [36:60-61]

Those are just some more questions that I am putting out for people to think about and I will try to answer some of them in the near future, except if The GOD wills and perhaps my Lord guides me to what is nearer in rationality.

IMPORTANT DISCLAIMER:

“This is the book, no doubt, in it guidance for the prudent/forethoughtful.” [2:2]

Tomorrow, I will try to improve my understanding of the Quran and the universe, except if The GOD wills and perhaps my Lord guides me to what is nearer in rationality. This article reflects my personal interpretation of the Quranic verses as of December 31st, 2002. Please be humble by following the example set by the angels in 2:32, verify all information within for yourself as commanded in 17:36, and remember that simply “none” is the prudent/forethoughtful answer to 45:6.

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RSS المؤلف: احمد صبحي منصور

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